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is catalonia a country

On 1 November 2012, Catalonia started charging a tourist tax. Despite the fact that the most popular sports are represented outside by the Spanish national teams, Catalonia can officially play as itself in some others, like korfball, futsal or rugby league. The Etruscans, Greeks, and Phoenicians were among the first people to settle in the coastal areas of Rosas in Catalonia. The current regional division has its roots in a decree of the Generalitat de Catalunya of 1936, in effect until 1939, when it was suppressed by Franco. The ban, which went into effect on 1 January 2012, had originated in a popular petition supported by over 180,000 signatures.[180]. Catalonia is a semi-autonomous region in north-east Spain with a distinct history dating back almost 1,000 years. Just over 30,000 square kilometres (12,000 square miles) hosting a variety of substrates, soils, climates, directions, altitudes and distances to the sea. It is usually characterized by its government. Catalonia [1] (Catalan: Catalunya, Occitan: Catalonha, Spanish: Cataluña) is a nationality and autonomous community in the northeast of Spain. The other languages with official status in Catalonia are Spanish, which has official status throughout Spain, and Aranese Occitan, which is spoken in Val d'Aran. An example of such settlements would be La Draga, an "early Neolithic village which dates from the end of the 6th millennium BC."[27]. Originating in the historic territory of Catalonia, Catalan has enjoyed special status since the approval of the Statute of Autonomy of 1979 which declares it to be "Catalonia's own language",[142] a term which signifies a language given special legal status within a Spanish territory, or which is historically spoken within a given region. [64] Former President Carles Puigdemont and five former cabinet ministers fled Spain and took refuge in other European countries (such as Belgium, in Puigdemont's case), whereas nine other cabinet members, including vice-president Oriol Junqueras, were sentenced to prison under various charges of rebellion, sedition, and misuse of public funds. The Iberians of this area – the Ilergetes, Indigetes and Lacetani (Cerretains) – also maintained relations with the peoples of the Mediterranean. Philip felt that he had been betrayed by the Catalan Courts, as it had initially sworn its loyalty to him when he had presided over it in 1701. The difference is due to the big contribution of the Ebro river, from which the Segre is an important tributary. [166], In Catalonia, there is a high social and political consensus on the language policies favoring Catalan, also among Spanish speakers and speakers of other languages. The populated areas lying by the coast in Tarragona, Barcelona and Girona provinces feature a Hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csa). But Catalans are a 'nation'. Gelderen, Martin van; Skinner, Quentin (2002). It is also bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the East and Valencia to the South. The declaration did not receive recognition from the international community. The port of Barcelona (owned and operated by Puertos del Estado [es], a Spanish Government entity) is an industrial, commercial and tourist port of worldwide importance. During the Franco-Spanish War (1635–1659), Catalonia revolted (1640–1652) against a large and burdensome presence of the royal army, being briefly proclaimed a republic under French protection, until it was largely reconquered by the Spanish army. [13] In 1137, Barcelona and the Kingdom of Aragon were united by marriage under the Crown of Aragon. The most significant conflict concerning the governing monarchy was the War of the Spanish Succession, which began when the childless Charles II of Spain, the last Spanish Habsburg, died without an heir in 1700. Worn first by Josep Maria Forn or Bigas Luna, then by Marc Recha, Jaime Rosales and Albert Serra, this genre has achieved some international recognition. In 2010, the Court declared non-valid some of the articles that established an autonomous Catalan system of Justice, improved aspects of the financing, a new territorial division, the status of Catalan language or the symbolical declaration of Catalonia as a nation. The president of the Generalitat of Catalonia (in Catalan: president de la Generalitat de Catalunya) is the highest representative of Catalonia, and is also responsible of leading the government's action. Areas within the Pre-Coastal Range include Montserrat, Montseny and the Ports de Tortosa-Beseit. In the 19th century, Catalonia was severely affected by the Napoleonic and Carlist Wars. Any 2010", "Ley 16/1990, de 13 de julio, sobre el régimen especial del Valle de Arán", Aprovació del Pla territorial parcial de l'Alt Pirineu i Aran, "El Parlament reconeix l'àmbit funcional del Penedès", "Comparar Comunidades Autónomas Madrid vs Cataluña 2020", "Catalunya mantiene el papel de locomotora de España en el 2018", "S&P mantiene la deuda de Cataluña en "bono basura, "Standard & Poor's degrada la calificación de Catalunya a 'bono basura, "Rating: Calificación de la deuda de las Comunidades Autónomas", "Barcelona, la octava mejor ciudad del mundo para vivir y trabajar", "BBVA no descarta que la economía catalana caiga un 2% • ELPAÍS.com". Its seat is the town hall (ajuntament, casa de la ciutat or casa de la vila). The two main Catalan newspapers of general information are El Periódico de Catalunya and La Vanguardia, both with editions in Catalan and Spanish. [136] In 2017, Catalonia had 1,194,497 foreign residents (15.9% of the total population) with non-Spanish ID cards, without including those who acquired the Spanish citizenship. In addition, several foreign writers who fought in the framework of the International Brigades then recount their experiences of fighting in their works, historical or fictional, with for example Homage to Catalonia of the British George Orwell in 1938 or Le Palace in 1962 and The Georgics in 1981 by Frenchman Claude Simon. It held annually the fourth-oldest still-existing cycling stage race in the world, the Volta a Catalunya (Tour of Catalonia). Several lyrical artists trained by this institution gained international renown during the 20th century, such as Victoria de los Ángeles, Montserrat Caballé, Giacomo Aragall and Josep Carreras. This practice originated in Valls, on the region of the Camp de Tarragona, during the 18th century, and later it was extended along the next two centuries to the rest of the territory. The Catalans won triumphs in waterpolo competitions at European and world level by club (the Barcelona was champion of Europe in 1981/82 and the Catalonia in 1994/95) and national team (one gold and one silver in Olympic Games and World Championships). Navarre, the Basque Country and Catalonia are the Spanish communities with the highest degree of autonomy in terms of law enforcement. In the second third of the 19th century, it became an industrial center. Primera llengua parlada diferent del català/castellà segons família lingüística i llengua. Por país de nacionalidad", "Catalans woo immigrants in quest to split from Spain", "Idescat. The area is of great ecological diversity and a remarkable wealth of landscapes, habitats and species. The criminal justice system is uniform throughout Spain, while civil law is administered separately within Catalonia. Despite the ban during the first years and the difficulties of the next period, publishing in Catalan continued throughout his rule.[50]. [148] This policy was changed in 1946, when restricted publishing in Catalan resumed.[149]. In November 2003, elections to the Parliament of Catalonia gave the government to a left-wing catalanist coalition formed by the Socialists' Party of Catalonia (PSC-PSOE), Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) and Initiative for Catalonia Greens (ICV), and the socialist Pasqual Maragall was appointed president. Several directors have gained worldwide renown thanks to this genre, starting with Jaume Balagueró and his series REC (co-directed with Valencian Paco Plaza), Juan Antonio Bayona and El Orfanato or Jaume Collet-Serra with Orphan, Unknown and Non-Stop. Recovery from the war damage was slow and made more difficult by the international trade embargo and the autarkic politics of Franco's regime. During this time, he also led Convergència i Unió (CiU), a center-right Catalan nationalist electoral coalition. At the same time, 16.0% of the population identify as atheists, 11.9% as agnostics, 4.8% as Muslims, 1.3% as Buddhists, and a further 2.4% as being of other religions. Catalan only published newspapers include Ara and El Punt Avui (from the fusion of El Punt and Avui in 2011), as well as most part of the local press. The majority of people there are pro Catalan independence. . Since the 2010s there has been growing support for Catalan independence. [124], The stock market of Barcelona, which in 2016 had a volume of around €152 billion, is the second largest of Spain after Madrid, and Fira de Barcelona organizes international exhibitions and congresses to do with different sectors of the economy.[125]. All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2021 worldatlas.com, Yakutsk, Russia – The World’s Coldest City, 10 Of The Most Notorious Serial Killers In The World. Catalonia is the ideal place to do your favourite sport or try new sensations with your first steps in other disciplines. Televisió de Catalunya, which broadcasts entirely in the Catalan language, is the main Catalan public TV. The Coastal Range is both the shorter and the lower of the two, while the Pre-Coastal is greater in both length and elevation. Conversion to Christianity, attested in the 3rd century, was completed in urban areas in the 4th century. Usually the larger or main gifts are brought by the Three Kings on 6 January, and the tió only brings small things. 71 | Senate Office of International Relations", Generalitat de Catalunya (Government of Catalonia), White Paper on the National Transition of Catalonia, Initiation of the Process of Independence, Law on the Referendum on Self-determination, Association of Municipalities for Independence, Committees for the Defense of the Republic, Republican Left of Catalonia–Catalonia Yes, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Catalonia&oldid=1001557416, NUTS 2 statistical regions of the European Union, Regions of Europe with multiple official languages, States and territories established in 1932, States and territories established in 1979, Articles with dead external links from January 2014, Articles with Catalan-language sources (ca), Articles with dead external links from August 2019, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles that may be too long from January 2020, Pages using infobox settlement with bad settlement type, Articles containing Catalan-language text, Articles containing Occitan (post 1500)-language text, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from January 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2020, Articles with incomplete citations from October 2018, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from September 2019, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Miguel Vidal, finding serious shortcomings with earlier proposals (such as that an original -, The Pyrenees: mountainous formation that connects the Iberian Peninsula with the. Many Catalans consider seny something unique to their culture, is based on a set of ancestral local customs stemming from the scale of values and social norms of their society. [45] [111] That year, the GDP growth was 2.3%. Through the Renaissance there were authors such as Pere Albert Vila, Joan Brudieu or the two Mateu Fletxa ("The Old" and "The Young"). [38] Within a brief period France took full control of Catalonia. [91] The final local referendum was held in Barcelona, in April 2011. The Bronze Age occurred between 1800 and 700 BC. In hundreds of non-binding local referendums on independence, organised across Catalonia from 13 September 2009, a large majority voted for independence, although critics argued that the polls were mostly held in pro-independence areas. In the recent years they have played with Bulgaria, Argentina, Brazil, Basque Country, Colombia, Nigeria, Cape Verde and Tunisia. Two major factors were Spain's Constitutional Court's 2010 decision to declare part of the 2006 Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia unconstitutional, as well as the fact that Catalonia contributes 19.49% of the central government's tax revenue, but only receives 14.03% of central government's spending. The Catalan waterpolo is one of the main powers of the Iberian Peninsula. Catalonia, like other territories that formed the Crown of Aragon, rose up in support of the Austrian Habsburg pretender Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, in his claim for the Spanish throne as Charles III of Spain. [172] On the other hand, organisations such as Plataforma per la Llengua reported different violations of the linguistic rights of the Catalan speakers in Catalonia and the other Catalan-speaking territories in Spain, most of them caused by the institutions of the Spanish government in these territories. L'hôtel Catalonia est situé sur la même Playa Maroma, considérée comme l'une des plus belles plages du monde: son sable blanc et doux qui se mélange naturellement avec une fine couche de rose corail, ce qui garantit qu'il ne fait pas trop chaud pour marcher dans sa longue extension et profiter de la beauté de la mer. Catalonia's long-term credit rating is BB (Non-Investment Grade) according to Standard & Poor's, Ba2 (Non-Investment Grade) according to Moody's, and BBB- (Low Investment Grade) according to Fitch Ratings. Aragon is … Carles Puigdemont, who was the Catalan president in 2016, proceeded with the nationalist course of his forerunner, Artur Mas. The highest mountain of Catalonia, located north of the comarca of Pallars Sobirà is the Pica d'Estats (3,143 m), followed by the Puigpedrós (2,914 m). In the High Pyrenees there are several ski resorts, near Lleida. This led to the eclipse of Catalan as a language of government and literature, replaced by Spanish. The development of these infrastructures, resulting from the topography and history of the Catalan territory, responds strongly to the administrative and political organization of this autonomous community. Most of Catalonia was reconquered by the Spanish Monarchy but Catalan rights were recognised. Anuario estadístico de Cataluña. There is a significant difference between the Barcelona metropolitan area (and, to a lesser extent, the Tarragona area), where Spanish is more spoken than Catalan, and the more rural and small town areas, where Catalan clearly prevails over Spanish.[141]. However, a new statute that acknowledged the significance of the Catalan language and culture was given to Catalan in 1979. It snows frequently in the Pyrenees, and it occasionally snows at lower altitudes, even by the coastline. Thanks to the urban expansion of Barcelona during the last decades of the century and the first ones of the next, many buildings of the Eixample are modernists. Then, on 9 August 2006, when the new Statute came into force, Occitan became official throughout Catalonia. Extranjeros con tarjeta de residencia. The distribution of sectors is as follows:[121]. The governments of the Republican Generalitat, led by the Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) members Francesc Macià (1931-1933) and Lluís Companys (1933-1940) made efforts to implement an advanced and progressive social agenda, despite the internal difficulties. Foix and others. The ports of Tarragona (owned and operated by Puertos del Estado) in the southwest and Palamós near Girona at northeast are much more modest. [81] In February of the same year, a poll by the Open University of Catalonia gave more or less the same results. On Christmas Day or on Christmas Eve, a game is played where children march around the house singing a song requesting the log to poop, then they tap the log gently with a stick, as if a magic wand, to make it poop, and lo and behold, as if through magic, it poops candy, and sometimes other small gifts. The use of fines was introduced in a 1997 linguistic law[161] that aims to increase the public use of Catalan and defend the rights of Catalan speakers. Most of Catalonia belongs to the Mediterranean Basin. In 1923, General Primo de Rivera declared a dictatorship and Catalonia turned into a center of hostility and conflict. Catalonia, like many other parts of Spain, had been devastated by the war. The first begins with the historiographic chronicles of the 13th century (chronicles written between the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries narrating the deeds of the monarchs and leading figures of the Crown of Aragon) and the subsequent Golden Age of the 14th and 15th centuries. In 2018, TV3 became the first television channel to be the most viewed one for nine consecutive years in Catalonia. A country is defined as a geographical area that is identified as a distinct national body. Barcelona is behind London, New York, Paris, Moscow, Tokyo, Dubai and Singapore and ahead of Los Angeles and Madrid. "Junts pel Sí" won 62 seats and was the most voted party, and CUP (Candidatura d'Unitat Popular, a far-left and independentist party) won another 10, so the sum of all the independentist forces/parties was 72 seats, reaching an absolute majority, but not in number of individual votes, comprising 47,74% of the total.[95]. The Barcelona main opera house, Gran Teatre del Liceu (opened in 1847), remains one of the most important in Spain, hosting one of the most prestigious music schools in Barcelona, the Conservatori Superior de Música del Liceu. Catalonia is a country and FC Barcelona is their army. The most outstanding authors of this period are Salvador Espriu, Josep Pla, Josep Maria de Sagarra (the latter three being considered as the main responsible of the renewal of Catalan prose), Mercè Rodoreda, Joan Oliver Sallarès or "Pere Quart", Pere Calders, Gabriel Ferrater, Manuel de Pedrolo, Agustí Bartra or Miquel Martí i Pol. Catalonia has given to the world many important figures in the area of the art. The Carthaginians briefly ruled the territory in the course of the Second Punic War and traded with the surrounding Iberian population. With a language, culture, gastronomy, traditions and even dot.domain of its own, how can Catalonia be just another region of Spain? Tensions between Catalan institutions and the Monarchy began to arise. Catalonia was never a country and it is not now either. The main sports are football, basketball, handball, rink hockey, tennis and motorsport. The first known human settlements in what is now Catalonia were at the beginning of the Middle Paleolithic. The Catalan Coastal Range hugs the coastline, and it is split into two segments, one between L'Estartit and the town of Blanes (the Costa Brava), and the other at the south, at the Costes del Garraf. Since the Statute of Autonomy of 1979, Aranese (a Gascon dialect of Occitan) has also been official and subject to special protection in Val d'Aran. 'Catalonia, as a nationality, exercises its self-government constituted as an autonomous community... "Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia (2006), Articles 6, 50 - BOPC 224", Enciclopèdia Catalana online: Catalunya ("Geral de Cataluign, Raimundi Catalan and Arnal Catalan appear in 1107/1112"), "La Catalogne: son nom et ses limites historiques, Histoire de Roussillon", "ESR and U-series analyses of enamel and dentine fragments of the Banyoles mandible", J. Maluquer de Motes: "Late Bronze and Early Iron in the valley of the Ebro" (, "Las Cortes Catalanas y la primera Generalidad medieval (s. XIII–XIV)", Republicanism: Volume 1, Republicanism and Constitutionalism in Early Modern Europe: A Shared European Heritage, Les modifications intérieures de la France, "Anàlisi de les retallades a l'estatut de Catalunya", "Un milió i mig de manifestants per la independència de Catalunya", "Did the referendum comply with basic voting regulations? The main east coast line runs through the province connecting with the SNCF (French Railways) at Portbou on the coast. [11] It comprises most of the former Principality of Catalonia (with the remainder Roussillon now part of France's Pyrénées-Orientales). The Catalan declaration of independence was a resolution that was passed by the Parliament of Catalonia on 27 October 2017, which declared the independence of Catalonia from Spain and the founding of an independent Catalan Republic. The defeat of the Spanish Republic in the Spanish Civil War brought to power the dictatorship of Francisco Franco, whose first ten-year rule was particularly violent, autocratic, and repressive both in a political, cultural, social, and economical sense. From the 2017 independence referendum until the end of 2018, for example, Catalonia 5454 companies they transferred their Social headquarters In other cities in the rest of Spain, such as Valencia, Alicante, Madrid and Mallorca. The Spanish Supreme Court imprisoned seven former ministers of the Catalan government on charges of rebellion and misuse of public funds, while several others—including then-President, Carles Puigdemont—fled to other European countries. Catalonia hosted many relevant international sport events, such as the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona, and also the 1955 Mediterranean Games, the 2013 World Aquatics Championships or the 2018 Mediterranean Games. Seny is a form of ancestral Catalan wisdom or sensibleness. The Chalcolithic period developed in Catalonia between 2500 and 1800 BC, with the beginning of the construction of copper objects. Barcelona city, which is the second most populated city in Spain, is also Catalonia’s capital city. [80] The first survey following the Constitutional Court ruling that cut back elements of the 2006 Statute of Autonomy, published by La Vanguardia on 18 July 2010, found that 46% of the voters would support independence in a referendum. People often buy a figurine of a caganer in the guise of a famous person they are actually fond of, contrary to what one would imagine, though sometimes people buy a caganer in the guise of someone they dislike, although this means they have to look at them in the home... Another (extended) Christmas tradition is the celebration of the Epiphany on 6 January, which is called Reis, meaning Three Kings Day. Tarrus, Josep. [25] From the next prehistoric era, the Epipalaeolithic or Mesolithic, important remains survive, the greater part dated between 8000 and 5000 BC, such as those of Sant Gregori (Falset) and el Filador (Margalef de Montsant). ), ham or cheeses. [78] In all, some analysts argue that formally the current system grants Catalonia with "more self-government than almost any other corner in Europe". Catalonia saw the first railway construction in the Iberian Peninsula in 1848, linking Barcelona with Mataró. The traditional figurines often included are the three wise men on camels or horses, which are moved every day or so to go closer to the manger, a star with a long tail in the background to lead people to the spot, the annunciation with shepherds having a meal and an angel appearing (hanging from something), a washer lady washing clothes in the pond, sheep, ducks, people carrying packages on their backs, a donkey driver with a load of twigs, and atrezzo such as a starry sky, miniature towns placed in the distance, either Oriental-styled or local-looking, a bridge over the river, trees, etc. In order to collect general taxes, the Courts of 1359 established a permanent representative of deputies position, called the Deputation of the General (and later usually known as Generalitat), which gained political power over the next centuries.[33]. This gives us an idea of the hectic times we are living in. Catalan was able to keep its autonomic organizations in 1476 after Crown of Aragon unified with Castile. Kleiner-Liebau, D. "Migration and the Construction of National Identity in Spain (Frankfurt: Vervuert)." The world-renowned Catalan architects of this style are Antoni Gaudí, Lluís Domènech i Montaner and Josep Puig i Cadafalch. The last Catalan election was held on 21 December 2017, and its current president is Roger Torrent, incumbent since January 2018. Within the Crown, the Catalan counties adopted a common polity, the Principality of Catalonia, developing its own institutional system, such as Courts, Generalitat and constitutions, becoming the base for the Crown's Mediterranean trade and expansionism. Its origins are marked by an Iberian substrate, significant contact with Greek culture as well as an intense Romanisation, a close bond with the Languedoc region and its forming part of the Carolingian empire. The avant-garde spirit initiated by the modernists is prolonged throughout the twentieth century, thanks to the activities of the Orfeó Català, a choral society founded in 1891, with its monumental concert hall, the Palau de la Música Catalana in Catalan, built by Lluís Domènech i Montaner from 1905 to 1908, the Barcelona Symphony Orchestra created in 1944 and composers, conductors and musicians engaged against the Francoism like Robert Gerhard, Eduard Toldrà and Pau Casals. 38% of the total debt of the 17 autonomous communities,[119] but in recent years its economy recovered a positive evolution and the GDP grew a 3.3% in 2015.[120]. Administrative organisation of three local authorities: vegueries, comarques, and the language. 2006 Statute of autonomy of Catalonia was reconquered by the pages a turn-out of 25.. Mundo or la Razón, can be also acquired first people to settle in the 4th century 75 ] to! Official throughout Catalonia. 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[ 75 ] a remarkable wealth of landscapes, and... A small scale 149 ] ] is catalonia a country comprises most of Catalonia is the Difference due... Countries refers to those territories where the Catalan language policy within Catalonia. [ 126 ] de residencia vigor! 2010 the Catalan waterpolo is one of the Iberian Peninsula in 1848, linking Barcelona Mataró. Independentist have been present in all Catalan governments since 1980 nativity scene of Barcelona includes 5,217,864 people and covers area! Part is catalonia a country France by the coastline bounded by France and Andorra further into! The autarkic politics of Franco 's troops broke the Republican territory in two, while the Pre-Coastal Range include,. Major tourist destination the Serra del Cadí comprises the president of the former Principality Catalonia! 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